Types of mineral fertilizers

Mineral fertilizers promote the full growth of plants by supplying them with mineral elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, iron, zinc and others. They are concentrated forms of nutrients that are then added to the soil or dissolved for fertilization. Different types of mineral fertilizers saturate the soil, increase the yield of flora.

In the article we will analyze the benefits of top dressing, their main types, characteristics, and care features. We will provide recommendations for use.

The benefits and harms of mineral fertilizers

Mineral fertilizers are extremely useful for plants, because they make up for the lack of nutrients. Proper application of baits significantly increases the yield of vegetation, provides them with the necessary components for healthy growth.

Other advantages

  • Nutrition correction. The deficiency of certain components in the soil is removed. Plants become more resistant to diseases, harmful insects and animals.
  • Improving the appearance of vegetation. It is possible to achieve a brighter color of the leaves, a strong stem.
  • Effectiveness. Mineral fertilizers have a fast action. With their help, it is possible to meet the vitamin needs of plants in the shortest possible time.

Disadvantages are manifested in the uncontrolled use of mineral substances, or if they are overdue and of poor quality. Also, negative consequences are observed when minerals are not suitable for a specific type of soil or plants. It is important to follow the manufacturer's recommendations when using them, not to go beyond the accepted dosages. An overabundance of nutrients can make plants too soft, which will cause a change in their color and structure.

What are mineral fertilizers made of

The most popular ingredients in the composition are nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Based on this, the following classification of mineral fertilizers is distinguished:

  • nitric
  • phosphorous
  • potash

Let's take a closer look at each of the types, indicate their features and advantages.

Nitrogen fertilizers

They contain nitrogen in various forms. They are used to meet the needs of vegetation for this important nutritional ingredient. Nitrogen deficiency is often observed in the spring, and this type of top dressing is used to eliminate it. Let's look at the main varieties, their advantages and disadvantages.

Types of nitrogen fertilizers

  • Ammonia. This group includes compounds such as ammonia (NH3) and urea (NH2CONH2). They contain a high concentration of nitrogen and have good solubility in water. Plants quickly absorb this ingredient. However, ammonia products can be toxic at high concentrations.
  • Nitrate. These include ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and potassium nitrate (KNO3). They are safer and less toxic.
  • With a slow release. They provide plants with nitrogen for several weeks or months after use.

These compounds have different effects. For example, calcium nitrate works best on acidic soils, or when fertilizing winter crops in spring. Urea is recommended for slightly acidic soils.

Application

It is important to remember that some nitrogen fertilizers tend to explode, which is preceded by high temperatures. For example, ammonium nitrate. That is why it is rarely supplied for household needs.

Possible detonation is not the only drawback. Do not forget about the consequences of improper dosage. Excessive saturation of the soil with nitrates will negatively affect the plants. And if it comes to fruits, the health consequences will be even more negative.

However, if fertilizers are used correctly, the consequences of their use will be positive. It's just important to follow the recommended dosages. For urea, the values are as follows:

  • 10-20 g per m2 for shrubs, trees.
  • 20 g per m2 for tomatoes, beets.
  • 5-12 g per m2 for other vegetables.

Most often, nitrogen compounds are needed for application in the spring. They are not recommended in autumn – there is a high probability that the top dressing will be washed out by heavy rains.

Phosphorus fertilizers

Features of phosphorus fertilizers

Phosphorus is important in photosynthesis, energy metabolism, and the development of flowers and fruits. However, the content of the component in nature is very limited, it is often extracted by plants from the soil. The symptoms of phosphorus deficiency are immediately visible: the color of the leaves of the plant changes, and maturation is slower.

Types of phosphorus fertilizers

  • Phosphorous flour. It is cheap, has a long-lasting effect. It manifests itself most well on peat and acidic soils.
  • Superphosphate. A simple superphosphate has excellent dispersibility, a double one allows for a minimum of costs. Recommended for alkaline and neutral soils.
  • Others with calcium phosphate.

Sometimes complex phosphorus-nitrogen fertilizers are used. We will talk about them further.

Application of phosphorus fertilizers

They are often used at the moment before sowing. Thus, it is possible to achieve optimal crop growth. It is widely accepted to apply 5 g of the drug per m2 of soil. The dosage depends on the type of soil and plant. It is recommended to follow the recommendations of the supplier company.

Potash fertilizers

Potassium is necessary for many processes in plants, including photosynthesis, regulation of water balance, and transportation of substances. The use of potassium sulfate helps to improve the quality and quantity of the crop.

Potassium improves the taste, color and texture of fruits. It makes plants more resistant to diseases, stress and adverse environmental conditions. It helps to strengthen the winter hardiness of plants, which is especially important for crops grown in cold regions. That is why it is often used in August-September, contributing to the passage of winter by the flora.

Types of potash fertilizers

The most popular varieties:

  • Potassium sulfate. It is recommended for sod-podzolic and peat soils. It has a very good effect on sunflowers, root crops and other crops that suffer from a lack of potassium and sodium. It does not contain toxic substances. Sometimes it is combined with other fertilizers.
  • Potassium chloride or potassium salt. Cheaper, but less high-quality fertilizer. The key drawback is the presence of chlorine. However, it does not reduce the effectiveness of bait, if we are talking about those crops that are resistant to it. For example, if it's berries.
  • Kalimagnesia combines potassium and magnesium, providing the best conditions for fertilizing sod-podzolic soils. It shows itself well on legumes, berries, fruits, and potato crops.

Features of potash fertilizers

Many farmers use such dosages:

  • Improved plant nutrition. The desired ratio is achieved, which contributes to healthier growth, root system development, flowering, fruiting.
  • Increase in yield. They help to increase productivity by providing micro- and macronutrients.
  • Soil improvement. Complex fertilizers can help improve the structure of the soil, increasing its fertility and ability to retain moisture.
  • Reduction of time and financial costs. The use of complex fertilizers allows you to reduce the number of necessary procedures, since they already include several vitamins.

This class of top dressing prevents the deficiency of both individual elements and trace elements. They promote the growth of flora, prevent the formation of various diseases. It is advisable to use such products based on a thorough soil study. After all, individual components are suitable only for specific soils.

Varieties of complex fertilizers

The most used formulations:

  • Ammophos is about 40-52% phosphorus and 12% nitrogen. It is well absorbed by plants, especially potato crops and vegetables.
  • Diammophos contains up to 50% phosphorus, 18% nitrogen and 1.5% sulfur. One of the most effective.
  • Azofoska – contains a uniform amount of phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium.
  • Nitrophoska consists of a number of components: salts of ammophos, potassium chloride, superphosphate, impurities, etc. The main application is the protection of plants from ailments.
  • Nitroammophos – includes about 16-23% nitrogen and 14-27% phosphorus. Accelerates the growth of shoots.

Micro Fertilizers

Micro fertilizers

Micro Fertilizers are needed by plants in small quantities. They play an important role in their healthy functioning. They include chemicals such as iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), boron (B), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), etc.

Key Features:

  • They are extremely important for plant health. The lack of even one of the trace elements can lead to a delay in fruiting, as well as cause various ailments of the plant.
  • Different shapes. Micronutrients are usually provided in the form of specially developed preparations that contain trace elements in an easily digestible form. This ensures effective absorption of these elements by plants.
  • Quality. When using micronutrients, it is important to ensure proper dosing and compliance with the recommendations for use. This way you can avoid an overabundance or lack of trace elements.

The most powerful chelated micro fertilizers – they contain chelates of metals such as zinc, copper, cobalt, molybdenum, etc. as a base. Due to this, these substances are better perceived by plants.

Advantages of chelated mineral fertilizers:

  • positive effect on the soil;
  • Kocherga Valentin Andreevich — Project manager
    With respect,
    Kocherga Valentin Andreevich
    Project manager
Application rates

500-1000 kg per 1 ha - grains and industrial crops

from 5,000 rub. per 1 ha


1000-2000 kg per 1 ha - potatoes and vegetables

from 10,000 rub. per 1 ha


Nutrients
Nitrogen
5%
General phosphorus
4%
Total potassium
4%
Application rates

250-350 kg per 1 ha – grains and industrial crops

from 4,500 rub. per 1 ha


500-800 kg per 1 ha - potatoes and vegetables

from 8,000 rub. per 1 ha


Nutrients
Nitrogen
6%
General phosphorus
4%
Total potassium
4%
Application rates

from 150 kg per 1 ha – grains and industrial crops

from 4,000 rub. per 1 ha


Nutrients
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Potassium
Application rates

from 100 kg per 1 ha – grains and industrial crops

from 4,000 rub. per 1 ha


Nutrients
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Potassium
Application rates

from 100 kg per 1 ha – grains and industrial crops

from 4,000 rub. per 1 ha


Nutrients
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Potassium
Application rates

Application rate: 200-300 ml per 1 hectare. Pre-sowing seed treatment. Consumption: 10 liters per ton

starting from 2,000 rubles per liter.


Nutrients
Application rates

Working solution consumption 10 l per 1 ton

from 118 rub. for 1 l. (without VAT)


Nutrients
Humic and fulvic acids
Macro and microelements
Vitamins
Application rates

The consumption of the working solution is 200 liters per hectare

At a rate of 118 rubles per 1 liter (excluding VAT)


Nutrients
Humic and fulvic acids
Macro and microelements
Vitamins
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